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Apache C++ Standard Library User's Guide

40.4 Error Indication in Code Conversion Facets

Since file stream buffers depend on their locale's code conversion facet, it is important to understand how they communicate. On writing to the external device, the file stream buffer hands over the content of its internal character buffer, partially or entirely, to the code conversion facet; that is, to its out() function. It expects to receive a converted character sequence that it can write to the external device. The reverse takes place, using the in() function, on reading from the external file.

In order to make the file stream buffer and the code conversion facet work together effectively, it is necessary that the two main functions in() and out() indicate error situations the way the file stream buffer expects them to do it.

There are four possible return codes from the member functions in() and out():

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